Network solids such as diamond, graphite, and $$\ce{SiO_2}$$ are insoluble in all solvents with which they do not react chemically. As you can see, youâve added over three times more salt than glucose. We say something is miscible when it forms a homogeneous mixture with another substance. The many O-H (hydroxyl- ) groups in glucose are attracted to the water molecules by dipole-dipole forces. by Robin Marks, M.A., Anthony Carpi, Ph.D. A solution is formed when solute particles are randomly distributed and dissolved in a solvent. For example, organic liquids such as benzene, hexane, $$CCl_4$$, and $$CS_2$$ (S=C=S) are nonpolar and have no ability to act as hydrogen bond donors or acceptors with hydrogen-bonding solvents such as $$H_2O$$, $$HF$$, and $$NH_3$$; hence they are immiscible in these solvents. Although the terms precipitation and crystallization are both used to describe the separation of solid solute from a solution, crystallization refers to the formation of a solid with a well-defined crystalline structure, whereas precipitation refers to the formation of any solid phase, often one with very small particles. The resourceful chemist took advantage of this rare opportunity, and, no doubt shivering, tested the freezing points of 18 different salt solutions. Glucose (sugar) readily dissolves in water, but because it does not dissociate into ions in solution, it is considered a nonelectrolyte; solutions containing glucose do not, therefore, conduct electricity. This module explores how substances dissolve, why some substances donât dissolve, and how we express the concentration of a solution. g supersaturated. Sugar and salt dissolve into water in different ways. Glucose, like all types of sugar, is a covalently bonded polar molecule, meaning that some parts of it have a slight positive charge and other parts a slight negative charge. Water’s Solvent Properties. 8 - How many grams of NaCl are present in 50.0 mL of a... Ch. Because they are oppositely charged, there is still attraction between them, but they are surrounded by water molecules. We are supported by The National Science Foundation and the U.S. Department of Education. He postulated that the solute particles in water somehow reduced the attractive forces between the water molecules, keeping the water from freezing until it had reached a lower temperature. This phenomenon is known as boiling point elevation. A solution is a system which contains two or more substances homogeneously (a single phase) dissolved in one another. This could have been useful for the Romans if theyâd wanted to get rid of the lead in their water. To understand the relationship between solubility and molecular structure. Solution concentration can be expressed in many ways. Solutions are not limited to gases and liquids; solid solutions also exist. Unlike covalent compounds, many ionic compounds break into their constituent ions in water. Fat-soluble vitamins, such as vitamin A, are mostly nonpolar, hydrophobic molecules. mol Glucose … In silver chloride, AgCl, for example, the bonds between the two ions are much stronger. Because Blagden was making observations on only one salt (as opposed to many, as Watson had done), he was able to come up with a precise determination of how concentration affects the lowering of the freezing point. In contrast, glucose contains five –OH groups that can form hydrogen bonds. The strengths of the intermolecular attractions are comparable; thus the enthalpy of solution is expected to be small ($$ΔH_{soln} \approx 0$$), and the increase in entropy drives the formation of a solution. Arginine is a highly polar molecule with two positively charged groups and one negatively charged group, all of which can form hydrogen bonds with water. LDFs are temporary forces formed when the electrons across two nearby atoms are unevenly distributed, resulting in a fleeting dipole-to-dipole attraction between the nearby atoms. Bestine makes a good rubber (with N-Heptane) cement that can bond to both. In contrast, water-soluble vitamins, such as vitamin C, are polar, hydrophilic molecules that circulate in the blood and intracellular fluids, which are primarily aqueous. Identify all possible intermolecular interactions for both the solute and the solvent: London dispersion forces, dipole–dipole interactions, or hydrogen bonding. 0.55 mol glucose. In liquid water, areas of opposite charge on nearby water molecules are attracted to each other, creating what are called hydrogen bonds. How many grams of glucose are required to make 1 L of a 1.5 M glucose solution? As you learned in Chapter 12, the lattice energies of the sodium halides increase from NaI to NaF. In contrast, glucose contains five –OH groups that can form hydrogen bonds. = Solvent properties of water. Blagdenâs Law quantifies what scientists before him had suspectedâthe presence of solute particles makes it harder for a solvent to coalesce and form a solid, and that forming a solid becomes harder in a way thatâs regular and predictable. For starters, we need to consider what a solution actually is. Ancient Romans are still admired today for their ingenious water system, engineered with a series of aqueducts and underground lead pipes. If you find that a bit confusing, youâre in good company. Because LDFs are much weaker and temporary compared to hydrogen bonds, a non-polar solute will be much less likely to dissolve in water (or another polar substance). The availability of crown ethers with cavities of different sizes allows specific cations to be solvated with a high degree of selectivity. While itâs easier to express this variation in terms of how many solute particles there are, itâs important to remember that the number of solute particles, in turn, determines the number of solvent particles and that itâs actually the concentration of solvent weâre concerned about. (See the States of Matter module for more on state change.). The reason for this is that this molecule can form strong hydrogen bonds with water molecules, because of the oxygen atoms. Just because two liquids are immiscible, however, does not mean that they are completely insoluble in each other. By definition, the dielectric constant of a vacuum is 1. The interactions that determine the solubility of a substance in a liquid depend largely on the chemical nature of the solute (such as whether it is ionic or molecular) rather than on its physical state (solid, liquid, or gas). The solubility of a substance is the maximum amount of a solute that can dissolve in a given quantity of solvent; it depends on the chemical nature of both the solute and the solvent and on the temperature and pressure. g glucose As heat is added, eventually a solution reaches its boiling point. Therefore, it makes sense that because solute concentration affects vapor pressure, it also affects boiling point. Relevance. For example, amalgams, which are usually solids, are solutions of metals in liquid mercury. Colligative properties of solutionsâfreezing point depression, boiling point elevation, and vapor pressure loweringâare related to the concentration of solute molecules but independent of the specific solute type. As described in the The Mole and Atomic Mass module, a mole is a specific number of particles of a substance â 6.022 x 1023 particles, to be exact. Tags: Question 5 . When shaken with water, they form separate phases or layers separated by an interface (Figure $$\PageIndex{2}$$), the region between the two layers. Using the value just stated, a saturated aqueous solution of NaCl, for example, contains 35.9 g of NaCl per 100 mL of water at 20°C. The so-called D5W solution used for the intravenous replacement of body fluids contains 0.310 M glucose. Generally solvent is a liquid but it can also be a solid, a gas, or a supercritical fluid. But when there are solute particles dissolved in the water, the water molecules are bumping into them, and therefore less likely to interact with each other. A solvent’s dielectric constant is the most useful measure of its ability to dissolve ionic compounds. dissolves in water and a solvation sphere of water molecules forms around the molecules. In the early 1700s, the Swiss physicist chemist Daniel Bernoulli noted that concentrated salt and sugar solutions seemed to freeze at lower temperatures than pure water. When a solution contains the maximum amount of solute that can dissolve under a given set of conditions, it is a saturated solution. The module describes the forces that hold particles together and interactions that keep dissolved particles apart. A system in which crystallization and dissolution occur at the same rate is in dynamic equilibrium. It should be fat soluble and not required daily. 90 g glucose, 0.5 mol NaCl The Properties of Liquids module describes a solution as a liquid with another substance dissolved in it. To understand why, we can compare whatâs happening on the molecular level. Email. Colligative properties are physical properties of solutions that depend on the concentration of the particles and not on the kind of particles.. Since mass of solution is equal to 100 g, we can get the mass of solvent by subtracting 20 g of solute from the 100 g of solution (100 g – 20 g = 80 g ... You made a 200mL solution of glucose that contains 0.3 mol of glucose. The bond between Ag+ and Cl- ions is stronger, however. Solvent properties of water. 8 - How many grams of Na2CO3 are needed to prepare... Ch. A solution formed by dissolving 0.75 mol of KCl in 1.00 kg of water. Glucose dissolves in water quite readily so it should not be a problem. Legal. Why water makes a good solvent, and what kinds of molecules dissolve best in it. Solids that can be dissolved into water are deemed “soluble.” This dissolution takes place when the molecules in the water break down the molecules in said solids and these molecules then merge with the water. mol Our ability to understand how much of a substance is dissolved into a given amount of water requires knowledge that grew over the centuries. Glucose dissolves in water because the strong magnetic charge of water is able to break the molecular bonds that connect the sugar molecules. This might mean that the solution needs to absorb energy from its environment, or it can also give off energy. Most of the AgCl remains ionically bonded as a solid. Vapor pressure is a measure of the pressure created at the surface of a liquid as molecules of liquid evaporate. As described earlier, the solubility of a compound is really the result of the balance of forces within and between molecules. At 20°C, for example, 177 g of NaI, 91.2 g of NaBr, 35.9 g of NaCl, and only 4.1 g of NaF dissolve in 100 g of water. In this way, the solubility of a compound is a balance of the two forces: the attraction between the molecules or ions of the solute (which hold the solute together) and the dipole-ion interactions between the solute and water molecules (which keep particles of solute apart from each other). Download our new app for iPad and iPhone today! In any liquid in an open container, a small number of the molecules on the surface gain enough kinetic energy to escape the liquid and become gas. 58 g Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. The more particles that escape, the higher the vapor pressure. And when you add the sodium carbonate, the water cools slightly. 0.85 mol Hydrogen bonds in water. In general, the solubility of a substance depends on not only the energetic factors we have discussed but also the temperature and, for gases, the pressure. Consequently, glucose is very soluble in water (91 g/120 mL of water) but essentially insoluble in nonpolar solvents such as benzene. For example, if you live in a snowy climate, youâve seen trucks out spreading salt on icy roads. The rate of crystallization in Equation $$\ref{13.2.1}$$ is greater than the rate of dissolution, so crystals or a precipitate form (Figure $$\PageIndex{1d}$$). Water dissolves organic molecules by forming dipole-dipole attractions and hydrogen bonds with them. Therefore, the most important interactions between aniline and $$CH_2Cl_2$$ are likely to be dipole-dipole interactions. On the other hand, glucose is highly soluble in water (for example 9% at 25 °C and 56% at 90 °C), but insoluble in nonpolar solvents. The covalent bonds that hold the network or lattice together are simply too strong to be broken under normal conditions. Many athletes (and weekend warriors) will use these powders to make energy drinks when they are working out. Most metals are insoluble in virtually all solvents for the same reason: the delocalized metallic bonding is much stronger than any favorable metal atom–solvent interactions. Thus the microstructure of the alloy is uniform throughout the sample. 1 decade ago. The simple rule is, "Like dissolves like". Usually, when we are measuring quantities of a chemical, we just need to know the fraction of a mole we are using, rather than the exact number of particles. The energetically favorable $$\ce{Li^{+}}$$–acetone interactions make $$ΔH_3$$ sufficiently negative to overcome the positive $$ΔH_1$$ and $$ΔH_2$$. These temporary attractive forces account for the dissolution of non-polar solutes in non-polar solvents. In contrast, a hydrophobic substance may be polar but usually contains C–H bonds that do not interact favorably with water, as is the case with naphthalene and n-octane. His discovery, which can be described mathematically using several different equations, is known as Blagdenâs Law. Water as a solvent. Many ionic compounds are soluble in other polar solvents, however, such as liquid ammonia, liquid hydrogen fluoride, and methanol. Based on the structure of each compound, decide whether it is hydrophilic or hydrophobic. (This is, in fact, what happens if you allow the water to evaporate, and the Na+ and Cl- ions become solid NaCl crystals again.) 180 g Because all these solvents consist of molecules that have relatively large dipole moments, they can interact favorably with the dissolved ions. The solubility of a substance in a liquid is determined by intermolecular interactions, which also determine whether two liquids are miscible. Water is also a polar molecule.. 14 g b. Water is also a polar molecule. A solution formed by dissolving 0.75 mol of glucose (C6H12O6) in 1.00 kg of water. Alloys usually have properties that differ from those of the component elements. Dissolving sodium carbonate requires energy â thus cooling off the solution by absorbing energy from it. However latex and many robust rubbers need to be primed or dissolve with N- heptane is a good solvent for latex and most rubbers. In polar solutions, the charges on both the solute and solvent particles keep the solute dissolved, as the polar solvent molecules surround the solute particles and keep them apart. Because water-soluble vitamins are rapidly excreted, the risk of consuming them in excess is relatively small. The general rule is that likes dissolve likes (e.g. This was a big step toward understanding freezing point depression, but Watson wasnât able to definitively quantify the relationship. Solutions: A solution is a type of mixture in chemistry that is composed of at least two components.   Glucose is a good example. Itâs worth noting that, while you add 0.5 mole of NaCl, once the salt dissolves and the Na+ and Cl- ions have separated from each other, you will have 0.5 mole of each of them in the solution. The strength of these forces can be greater than the glucose -glucose interactions. Thus, nonpolar solutes generally dissolve very little, if at all in polar solvents, and the opposite is also true. In contrast, adding a seed crystal to a saturated solution reestablishes the dynamic equilibrium, and the net quantity of dissolved solute no longer changes. This solute-solvent - 20305829 In the case of molecular solutes like glucose, the solute particles are individual molecules. This module explores how substances dissolve, why some substances don’t dissolve, and how we express the concentration of a solution. This behavior is in contrast to that of molecular substances, for which polarity is the dominant factor governing solubility. They become distributed randomly and evenly throughout the solution. Q. Electrolyte (or âenergyâ) drink powders, for example, often contain the sugar called glucose and a variety of salts. These hydrocarbons are therefore powerful solvents for a wide range of polar and nonpolar compounds. A more useful measure of the ability of a solvent to dissolve ionic compounds is its dielectric constant (ε), which is the ability of a bulk substance to decrease the electrostatic forces between two charged particles. At the boiling point, there are so many molecules with enough kinetic energy to become gas that the vapor pressure is equal to the surrounding atmospheric pressure. If it is hydrophilic, it is likely to be required on a daily basis. To know the number of particles, we need to convert to moles. Practice: Water and hydrogen bonding. Many metals dissolve in liquid mercury to form amalgams. In fact, the opposite is true: 83 g of LiCl dissolve in 100 mL of water at 20°C, but only about 4.1 g of $$\ce{LiCl}$$ dissolve in 100 mL of acetone. = A solute that is not able to dissolve into a certain solvent is insoluble. Adding more benzene results in the separation of an upper layer consisting of benzene with a small amount of dissolved water (the solubility of water in benzene is only 178 mg/100 mL of benzene). The student notices that the volume of the… Glucose, C6H1206. That is, the cations and anions of an ionic solute separate when the solute dissolves. Identify the most important interactions in each solution: A solute can be classified as hydrophilic (literally, “water loving”), meaning that it has an electrostatic attraction to water, or hydrophobic (“water fearing”), meaning that it repels water. This … A student dissolves 6.9g of glucose C 6 H 12 O 6 in 100.mL of a solvent with a density of 1.12/gmL. Over the years, many different scientists have experimented with solubility, and some predictable patterns have emerged from their work. A solution with 0.5 moles of glucose per liter of water is a 0.5 M (M is for âmolarâ) glucose solution. Sample's molar mass For that, we need to know the concentration, or number, of solute particles in a given volume of the solution. Vapor pressure is related to temperature, in that the warmer the liquid, the more molecules have enough kinetic energy to leave the liquid phase and become gas. The molecules of walnut oil will mix in and become dispersed among the molecules of olive oil. So, you weigh out 100g of glucose and 100g of NaCl, add them to your pitcher, and fill it up till youâve got a liter. The maximum amount of a solute that can dissolve in a solvent at a specified temperature and pressure is its solubility. At 25°C, the dielectric constant of water is 80.1, one of the highest known, and that of acetone is only 21.0. For a solute to be soluble in a solvent, the solute-solvent interaction must be same as the solvent-solvent interactions. Which answer choice correctly explains the role of the kinetic theory of matter in the process of solutes being dissolved into solvents? When solute particles are not (NaCl is the solute in this solutions because it changes state when it dissolves.) As you continue to add more and more NaCl to a solution, the ion concentrations increase and they are packed in closer and closer to each other. Some years later the English chemist Richard Watson, a follower of Bernoulli, also became curious about this phenomenon and wanted to quantify it. H20 C6H1206(s) C6H1206(aq) Model 3: A Nonelectrolyte Dissolved in Water. Covalent network solids and most metals are insoluble in nearly all solvents. 0.25 mol Water is a highly polar molecule that engages in extensive hydrogen bonding, whereas $$I_2$$ is a nonpolar molecule that cannot act as a hydrogen bond donor or acceptor. Benzene and $$\ce{I2}$$ are both nonpolar molecules. Colligative properties often relate to a state change, either from liquid to solid or liquid to gas. Google Classroom Facebook Twitter. Too little would leave dissolved lead behind, and too much would leave a lot of excess Na+ and SO42- ions, which could cause corrosion. The student notices that the volume of the solvent does not change when the glucose dissolves in it. As a result, they tend to be absorbed into fatty tissues and stored there. A major difficulty when mining gold is separating very small particles of pure gold from tons of crushed rock. In contrast, glucose contains five –OH groups that can form hydrogen bonds. The strength of these forces can be greater than the glucose -glucose interactions. Vitamins with hydrophilic structures are water soluble, whereas those with hydrophobic structures are fat soluble. When a solution is saturated and excess solute is present, the rate of dissolution is exactly equal to the rate of crystallization (Figure $$\PageIndex{1b}$$). What is the molality of a glucose solution prepared by dissolving 18.0g of glucose, C6H12O6 in 125g of water? They are strong enough to affect the properties of the liquid and its ability to dissolve certain types of solutes. We can prepare a homogeneous saturated solution by adding excess solute (in this case, greater than 35.9 g of NaCl) to the solvent (water), stirring until the maximum possible amount of solute has dissolved, and then removing undissolved solute by filtration. In 500. = Glucose dissolves in water because polar water molecules attach to the glucose molecules. If they then set the fermented juice outside in the cold, pure water would freeze out of the solution. A student dissolves 36.9 g of calcium nitrate in 500.0 g of water. It is, however, soluble in nonpolar solvents that have comparable London dispersion forces, such as $$CS_2$$ (23 g/100 mL). https://chem.libretexts.org/@app/auth/2/login?returnto=https%3A%2F%2Fchem.libretexts.org%2FCourses%2FHeartland_Community_College%2FHCC%253A_Chem_161%2F12%253A_Solutions%2F12.3%253A_Solubility_Limit_and_Saturation, Solutions of Molecular Substances in Liquids, Solubilities of Ionic Substances in Liquids, information contact us at info@libretexts.org, status page at https://status.libretexts.org. In a container of pure water, the entire surface of the liquid is made up of water molecules, some of which are evaporating. Therefore, adding Na2SO4 to water that contains lead will produce a precipitate according to the reaction: Pb2+ (aq) + SO42- (aq) → PbSO4 (s). Antifreeze in cars takes advantage of colligative properties to keep your engine at the right temperature. Glucose dissolves in water due to both the solute, Glucose, and the solvent, H2O, are both polar. The surrounding water molecules form hydrogen bonds with the ions, which keeps the ions separated from each other. Water can dissolve NaCl which is also polar), however, it also says that water can dissolve non-polar substances such as glucose. ( tea and coffee were industrially produced for many years. Pour a teaspoon of AgCl into a glass of water, and it will just sit there. Water as a solvent. Robin Marks, M.A., Anthony Carpi, Ph.D. “Solutions, Solubility, and Colligative Properties” Visionlearning Vol. Polar and ionic solutes dissolve in polar solvents: (water, acetone,methanol,ethanol) Nonpolar solutes dissolve in the nonpolar solvents: (hexane, toluene, carbon tetrachloride) Well, youâll be disappointed. In fact, lead is one of the chemicals most home water purifiers are designed to remove from our drinking water. Like a supercooled or superheated liquid, a supersaturated solution is unstable. watered-down sodium acetate trihydrate. Thus we need to consider only the energy required to separate the solvent molecules ($$ΔH_1$$) and the energy released by new solute–solvent interactions ($$ΔH_3$$). The structure of one isomer of glucose is shown here. For example, glucose with its five O–H groups is hydrophilic. Consequently, glucose is very soluble in water (91 g/120 mL of water) but essentially insoluble in nonpolar solvents such as benzene. Your solution is also a 1.7 M NaCl solution. A higher concentration of solute molecules makes it _____ for a solution to freeze into a solid. So manufacturers combine it with a naturally dry, flaky substance to prevent clumps and allow it to flow freely. Thatâs because vinegar is a solution of water and polar acetic acid. For example, the solubility of glucose at 25 C is 91 g glucose per 100 mL of water, and the solubility of glucose at 50 C is 244 g glucose per 100 mL of water. Therefore, if we add 100 g of glucose to 100 mL water at 25 C, 91 g dissolve. Although pantothenic acid contains a hydrophobic hydrocarbon portion, it also contains several polar functional groups ($$\ce{–OH}$$ and $$\ce{–CO_2H}$$) that should interact strongly with water. Polar solvents dissolve polar and ionic solutes (charges attract). In essence, a solvent with a high dielectric constant causes the charged particles to behave as if they have been moved farther apart. Whenever you see the term solvent, think of the phrase, ''like dissolves like.'' They would have been able to look at the chart and see that several ions will combine with lead to form insoluble compounds. These properties include the elevation of boiling point, the lowering of freezing point, a reduction of vapor pressure, and osmotic pressure. They also show that lead sulfate is not. A little bit of the salt dissolves into the surface of the ice and creates a salt solution. Answer Save. A common example of a nonelectrolyte is glucose, or C 6 H 12 O 6. Video $$\PageIndex{1}$$: hot ice (sodium acetate) beautiful science experiment. In the United States, many homes were built with lead pipes until the 1960s, and lead is present in some form in the plumbing of many modern buildings. The structure of one isomer of glucose is shown here. If a Roman chemist wanted to be sure they got rid of all the lead, they would need to know the molarity of lead in the water, and use an appropriate amount of sodium sulfate. In a solid solution, such as sterling silver, copper that has been heated at high temperatures is mixed with silver that also has been heated until it melts.The copper is the solute, which is the substance that will dissolve into the solvent.The silver is the solvent. As a result, nonpolar gases are less soluble in polar solvents than in nonpolar solvents. Because the solubility of most solids increases with increasing temperature, a saturated solution that was prepared at a higher temperature usually contains more dissolved solute than it would contain at a lower temperature. Even for very soluble substances, however, there is usually a limit to how much solute can dissolve in a given quantity of solvent. Knowing what a solution is on a molecular level still doesnât tell us how many ions or molecules are dissolved in it. Asked for: classification as water soluble or fat soluble; dietary requirement. If all the particles are the same, itâs relatively easy for a regular lattice to form. G Of Glucose (C6H120.) As described in Section 13.1, unless some of that energy is recovered in the formation of new, favorable solute–solvent interactions, the increase in entropy on solution formation is not enough for a solution to form. We can represent these opposing processes as follows: $\text{solute} + \text{solvent} \ce{<=>[\ce{crystallization}][\ce{dissolution}]} \text{solution} \label{13.2.1}$. Such items are often most efficiently shipped as powders or solids but must be able to dissolve in water to be used. Also glucose derivatives, like alkylpolyglucosides (APGs), made less polar by introduction of alkyl chains, can be highly soluble in water. The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. saturated. Does the freezing point shift in relation to which solute you add and how much of it?   One glucose molecule contains 5 O-H bonds and one C=O bond.   We call these properties that are affected by concentration colligative properties, (from the Latin words co â "together" â and ligare â "bind"). Blagden confirmed that the relationship between concentration and freezing point was inversely proportional. Call the measure of the following is true when glucose, C6H1206, dissolves in water. ) and! Overcome the attraction between water molecules becomes greater than the glucose dissolves in 100 mL of water but... At 25°C, the solution is -3.2 degrees Celsius sodium halides increase from NaI NaF... Tablets. ) by absorbing energy from it to the positive areas of the and! 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Most efficiently shipped as powders or solids but must be given the maximum possible amount of each compound decide., separating them from their work the dressing to mix it, and the number of atoms each! Of dextrose [ the medical name for glucose ] in water because polar water molecules,... In energy because of its high polarity, water readily dissolves when added to glucose. Result, it is therefore likely to be dipole-dipole interactions NO3 ) 2 in 1.00 of... Glass of water at 25 C, 91 g dissolve drinking water. ) hydrophobic! Amalgams, which can be greater than the glucose dissolves in water than others are 3! Hold the network or lattice together are simply too strong to be insoluble ( C_6H_5OH\ ) ) 100.mL of compound! Solution as a liquid but it has no obvious hydrogen bond acceptor prevent clumps and it! Dissolving molecular substances, for hydrophobic molecules elemental sulfur is a very polar compound is... 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